It completed all its stages through the Commons in one day without opposition MPs forcing any votes after Number 10 offered the concession that it would be reviewed every six months.
Health Secretary Matt Hancock earlier stressed the powers in the bill would only be used “when strictly necessary” and would remain in force only for as long as required.
The 329-page Coronavirus Bill enables the action to increase the available health and social care workforce and ease the burden on frontline staff and slow the spread of the virus.
The legislation, which was published last Thursday, set out powers for the police to detain people suspected of having coronavirus and send them to be tested. People who fail to do so could be fined up to £1,000.
The bill will also allow employers to reclaim statutory sick pay funds from HMRC to help with the burden of increased staff absence due to the outbreak of the killer illness.
And for workers it will scrap the three-day waiting period so they can receive payment from the day they stop working.
It also sets out powers for ministers to write port operators requiring their operation be suspended and for events or gatherings to be cancelled.
Food suppliers would also have to provide information to the appropriate authority if all or part of a food supply chain is being disrupted or is at risk of disruption.
The legislation, which is time-limited for two years, also modifies current laws to enable coroners to conduct an inquest without a jury for anyone who dies of Covid-19.
The number of confirmed coronavirus cases in the UK surged by 967 to 6,650 on Monday.
The national death toll also jumped to 336, with 55 new cases confirmed.
Addressing the nation, Prime Minister Mr Johnson earlier said people will now only be allowed to leave their homes for very limited purposes and that police will have the power to help to enforce the latest restrictions.
People must stay at home except for shopping for basic necessities, for exercise but only once a day, any medical need and travel to work but only if essential.
Shops selling non-essential goods will also be closed and gatherings in public of more than two people who do not live together are being prohibited.
Other premises including libraries, playgrounds, outdoor gyms, and places of worship must also shut.
Parks will remain open for exercise but gatherings will be dispersed, with police being handed the power to step in and enforce the new measures.
Mr Johnson said people had been asked to stay at home during this pandemic: “And though huge numbers are complying – and I thank you all – the time has now come for us all to do more.
“From this evening I must give the British people a very simple instruction – you must stay at home. Because the critical thing we must do is stop the disease spreading between households.”